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This article will
provide you with the basic knowledge necessary to help you select
the proper countertop. As you will see, granite is one of the best
materials for kitchen countertops.
The typical laminate countertop material
is known as Formica. It is made of a
thin layer of plastic (1/32" or 1/16")
that is glued to particleboard or wood
and can simulate many different
materials, including granite. The edge
of the countertop can be square or
rolled. Wood, brass and other inserts
can also be added
-Inexpensive and fairly durable
-Available in endless patterns and
-Easy to clean
cleaners can scratch and dull the finish
-Sharp knives will produce scratches and
hot pots will melt the finish
-Warping of the surface can occur with
prolonged wetting or flooding
-Laminates usually cannot be repaired
-Seams are easy to see
Some materials will fade with time
Acrylic and/or Polyester Plastics
Unlike laminates, acrylic and/or
polyester plastics are homogenous
throughout the material. Available in
thickness of 1/2" and 3/4", these
materials come in numerous colors. They
can be polished but are often seen with
a matte finish. They can be expensive
and in many cases, more expensive than
-Non-porous and stain resistant
-Abrasive cleaners can be used on
-Easy to clean and refinish
-Many colors available
-Scratches can be repaired
-Hot Pots will melt finish
-Plastic unnatural appearance
Wood (Butcher Block)
Wood countertops have often been used to
give a natural warm appearance. Most
wood countertops are made with hardwoods
glued together into strips. Butcher
block is constructed this way with rock
maple or beech. If you do a lot of
cutting, wood may be a perfect choice
if cared for
-Scratches can be removed by sanding
-Turns black if exposed to large
quantities of water
Tile countertops are typically made with
ceramic tile ranging in size from one
square inch to as large as six square
inches. There are also other shapes,
such as octagonal, rectangular, etc.
Tile countertops are popular in
country-style kitchens and are durable
materials. However, all tile has grout
lines, which can cause problems. Grout
soils very easily and will require
frequent cleaning. I would suggest that
epoxy grout be used when installing any
tile countertop. Epoxy grouts are a bit
more expensive, but the expense will far
outweigh the aggravation of clean up.
-Non-staining and will not scratch
-Endless colors, shapes and designs.
-Grout can be a problem
-Slightly more expensive than laminates.
Granite is an excellent choice for
countertops. Granite is available in
polished and matte finishes. While
granite may be more expensive than some
other materials, its longevity adds
(note) -Granite will never be sold
because it has a look that is very
similar to a plastic-looking Corian
color.....The fact that Corian tries to
make their product look like granite
speaks volumes as to which product is
the most beautiful. For pure aesthetic
beauty, Corian does not come close to
the richness, the depth, the polish, the
power and the naturally organic quality
that is granite. The beauty of granite
will always sell itself.
-Hot plates can be placed directly on
-Wide selection of colors
-Beauty, beauty, beauty
proper sealing to prevent staining
Nature or man
Who has the countertop advantage?
One of the biggest debates surrounding kitchen and bath design today is the choice of countertop material, and the two materials that are causing the most discussion are granite and solid surfacing. While granite is a natural, igneous material created underneath the earth’s surface, solid surface materials such as Corian and Avonite are man-made, using acrylic or polyester resins. This difference, along with many
others, has caused both consumers and professionals to form various opinions regarding the maintenance, durability, design and cost of both products. Also, over time a number of myths have emerged regarding both materials, and this misinformation has added to the confusion. Instead of
questioning which of the two is the better material, perhaps the question should be: is one material better than the other?
In comparing the pros and cons of both, the choice of material ultimately falls upon the consumer. Just as no two pieces of stone are alike, no two kitchens are alike either. In addition to layout and overall design, the practical needs and preferences of it’s occupants contribute to the material chosen for a particular kitchen. Additionally, since stone is a natural material, its coloring and patterns can vary, and consumers who prefer a solid color or evenly distributed pattern turn to a solid surface material. “Some people are not ready for a natural stone. They feel that granite has deposits in it and you can’t get a plain color,” said Ruby Shah of Stone-Tec, Inc., in
This year, the National Kitchen and Bath Association (N K B A) surveyed certified kitchen and bathroom designers regarding the design trends for the calendar year of 1998, and both granite and solid surfacing countertops were included. While the overall percentage of solid surface material use is greater than granite, its popularity has declined since 1995 and granite has increased. According to the report, “The percentage of jobs that include granite countertops has shown a steady rise in the three years covered by this report from a low in 1995 of 23 percent, to a high of 33 percent.” In contrast, solid surface use for kitchen countertops has declined from approximately 38 percent in 1995, to 35 percent in 1998.
Taking into account both practical and design related issues, granite and solid surface materials each offer a different set of options, and according to the NKBA survey, they both remain equally popular today. However, the advantages and disadvantages of both are often unclear, and the information available can be misleading. “Whether you’re building a new home or remodeling your old, the selection of the proper kitchen countertop can be confusing,” said Fred Hueston of NTC Enterprises, a stone consulting preservation firm bases in
Longwood, FL. “All questions can be answered by a basic knowledge of what’s available and their characteristics.
Durability and safety
When comparing the durability of a solid surface material with granite, the chemical make-up of both becomes very important. While solid surfaces are mostly composed of acrylic resins and polyester plastics, granite contains both quartz and feldspar. According to the Measurement of Hardness
(M O H) Scale for stone, a piece of hard plastic ranks a two, while feldspar and quartz rank a six and seven, respectively. “Hardness is measured on a M O H scale of 1 to 10, with ten being the hardest, and granite is a seven,” said
Hueston. “A stainless steel knife blade is around a six, so you cannot scratch granite with it.”
In contrast, solid surfaces will scratch more easily than granite, but according to solid surface manufacturers, they are also much easier to repair, and this factor attracts many people. While a scratch may be sanded out of a solid surface by the owner, a scratch in granite can often require a professional in order to be removed. This is one of the major advantages advertised by the solid surface industry when comparing the material with granite. However, the missing piece to this puzzle is that granite surfaces are very difficult to scratch. “Granite is nearly impossible to scratch” said
Hueston. “In the twenty years I have been in the restoration business, I have never once been called to fix a granite countertop because someone scratched it.”
Another area of importance concerning the durability of kitchen countertops is their ability to withstand heat. When cooking, a hot pot or pan can be placed directly onto a granite surface without causing damage, while a solid surface will burn or melt. According to Dupont
Corian, a popular solid surface manufacturer, “Corian remains stable and undamaged in a range of 0 to 212 degrees Fahrenheit.” In its advertisements, the company advises to use a hot pad of trivet to protect the material stating, “Hot-pans as well as some heat generating appliances like frying pans or crock pots, can damage the surface if a hot pad or trivet is not used.” In comparison, granite can withstand pots and pans up to 900 degrees Fahrenheit. “The melting point of quartz is greater than 1,200 degrees Fahrenheit,” said
Hueston. “A distinct advantage of granite is that when you are cooking, you can put a hot pan directly on the surface. Also, while hot oil can have a tendency to melt a solid surface, if sealed properly granite will not melt.
Although granite is more heat resistant, many solid surfaces are resistant to both food and liquid stains. According to manufacturers, solid surfacing is non-porous, and is therefore better able to resist liquids and foods that can produce a permanent stain when compared to granite. However, with the proper sealant, granite can also be protected from staining. “In some cases solid surfaces are more stain resistant than granite, and since there are many manufacturers, stain resistance depends on the product,” said
Hueston. “Some will be very stain resistant, while others will not be. But if sealed properly, granite can be just as stain resistant as solid surfaces.”
Furthermore, since solid surfacing materials are plastic and non-porous, they are advertised by manufacturers to be resistant to the growth of bacteria and mold. The fact that they are seamless also add to their durability in this area, manufacturers state. But neither its porous nature nor installation seams rule out granite as a safe countertop material. “There are stone cooking utensils that have been sold for years,” said
Hueston. Also, the penetrating sealers available for granite do not only resist stains, but also reduce the likelihood of bacteria and mold growth. Due to customer concerns about the safety of granite regarding bacteria and mold, Hueston contacted both the Center For Disease Control
(CDC) and The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) a year ago. “I asked them to do a keyword search to look and see if there were any recorded cases where bacteria is a concern with granite,” said
Hueston. “They came back with zero cases.”
When considering a material for use in an area where foods and liquids are abundant, damage is always a concern. Burning, nicking, cutting and staining are some examples of damage that can occur, depending on your countertop material. And no matter what material is chosen, none of these offer 100% protection from all of these problems. So what happens if a stain sets in on a granite countertop, or a solid surface burns? Both materials offer solutions to these possible situations, with advantages and disadvantages that accompany each.
Because it is a man-made material, solid surfacing reveals the same pattern and coloring throughout each layer, and with regard to damage repair this can be an advantage. “A solid surface is homogeneous, which means it is the same all the way through from top to bottom,” said
Hueston. As a result, any cuts or scratches can be sanded away to reveal the same design. As advertised by DuPont
Corian, “Corian keeps its good looks longer because the solid beauty of Corian goes all the way through. If a Corian surface is marred, there is plenty of renewable beauty right beneath the surface.” The procedure for removing a cut or scratch from a solid surface material varies depending on the finish, but most require a piece of sandpaper to smooth away the damaged layer, and an abrasive cleaner to restore the finish. Also, some manufacturers, such as
Avonite, have repair kits available for their products. “Solid surfaces are designed to function on a consumer-friendly basis,” said Sharad Vajani of
Transolid, a solid surface manufacturer. “They are designed to be easily repairable, and the rejuvenation of the surface is easier than granite.
For a matte finish, Corian recommends a 180 or 220-grit fine sandpaper, while a 400-grit can be used for a high-glossed finish. After the cut or scratch is sanded away, a matte or semi-gloss finish can be restored using an abrasive cleaner, and a high-glossed finish can be buffed with a white polishing compound and low-speed polisher using a wool pad. Additionally, a difficult stain can be removed using an abrasive cleaner and a Scotch Brite pad for a matte or semi-gloss finish, and a white polishing compound and sponge for a high-gloss finish.
Compared to solid surfaces, granite appears more difficult to repair and can require a professional to be fixed if scratched. But again, granite is much harder to damage. “The only thing that could possibly scratch granite would be if a person would turn their diamond ring around and scratch the stone surface with it,” said
Hueston. “If it were scratched, a professional would come in with an electric machine and sand the scratch out using a diamond abrasive to bring the surface back up and polish it. It is a very difficult thing to do, but is very rare that it would have to be done.”
Despite the many sealants available for granite today, staining can and does occur. However, most stains can be removed by using a variety of methods depending upon the type of stain. For more difficult stains, a poulticing method is used and can be performed overnight. “I tell people to take a cup of flour, and a tablespoon or two of liquid
dish soap and mix them together with water to make a paste with the consistency of yogurt or peanut butter,” said
Hueston. “Apply it over the stain and cover it with Saran Wrap. Let it sit overnight and then remove the plastic and let it dry. Then scrape it away.” This method can be used to remove most oil-based stains such as red wine, the dish detergent can be substituted with hydrogen peroxide.
In its brochure, Care and Cleaning for Natural Stones, The Marble Institute of America (MIA) lists other methods that can be used on stains that are less severe. A soft, liquid cleanser with bleach, a household detergent or ammonia can be used to flush out or rinse oil-based stains such as grease, cooking oil or milk, and for organic stains such as coffee, tea and fruit, a 12% hydrogen peroxide mixed with a few drops of ammonia can be used. Additionally, for light colored granite, hydrogen peroxide can also be used to remove ink stains from a magic marker or pen, but for darker stones, a lacquer thinner or acetone is recommended.
Although in some cases, repairing damage to a soid surface may be easier than granite, it does have some disadvantages. “Solid surfaces are easier to repair than granite but do scratch more easily, and with repeated sanding you may end up with creating a dish in the countertop,” said
Hueston. “In the hands of an inexperienced person, it can be sanded too much and actually place a dip in the solid surface.”
Everyday care and maintenance
In addition to damage repair, most people are concerned with every day cleaning and care, and are looking for a material that has little to no maintenance on a daily basis. “People want something that is basically maintenance-free,” said Sherry Barton of The Countertop
Shoppe,Inc., in Naples,FL. “For example, if you put a cup down a solid surface, it leaves a mark, but can be washed off with a dish detergent.” Overall, both materials do not require a great deal of maintenance on a daily basis, but again there are different procedures for both, and personal preference can be the deciding factor.
The biggest difference between granite and solid surfacing is resealing, and solid surfacing has the advantage in this area. Since a solid surface material does not require a sealant, aside from damage repair, it remains maintenance free except for daily cleaning. However, a granite countertop will have to be resealed over time. “In a home environment, once every couple of years it needs to be resealed,” said
Hueston. “In a commercial setting, food or beverage areas shoud be resealed every six months to a year, but it varies per manufacturer.” Nevertheless, unlike scratch removal, resealing does not require a professional, and can be done using an impregnator such as a penetrating sealer. “It literally soaks into the stone so you don’t see it,” said
Hueston. “It’s invisible protection.” To reseal, Hueston recommends that the countertop be wiped down as usual with a neutral cleaner or product made for granite and left to dry. “You can pour on an impregnator or apply it with a cloth and let it sit a few minutes. Then just wipe it off.” Depending on the brand used, the drying process can take from 12 to 24 hours. “Different brands cure differently,” said
Hueston. But once it cures, it is safe around food.”
Aside from resealing, daily maintenance for granite is not difficult, and is easier than solid surface maintenance in some aspects. “I think granite is easier to maintain on a daily basis,” said
Hueston. “The solid surface can require an abrasive cleaner and granite only requires you to spray and wipe a neutral cleaner. Also, if bacteria is a concern, there are now disinfectant cleaners.” Solid surfaces can be wiped daily with soapy water or an ammonia-based cleaner, but sometimes requires the use of a Scotch Brite pad. Also, while granite can be cleaned and disinfected in one step, solid surfaces require a mixture of water and household bleach.
Regardless of the countertop chosen, each needs to be cared for properly. “All countertop materials need the proper care to keep them looking great,” said
Hueston. “In food areas, a good anti-bacterial soap should be used, and all countertops should be cleaned after food preparation. Water should not be allowed to sit and puddle.”
When it comes to creating a specific look or appearance, granite and solid surface countertops offer different benefits, and although some of the options are available for both, each material has its own look. While solid surface materials can offer a more homogenous look, granite creates a unique appearance, with patterns that may vary from one piece of stone to another.
Because granite is a natural material, it does not produce the standardized look of a solid surface. “With granite, the pattern is not the same everywhere because it is God-made, but a solid surface will look the same throughout,” said Barton. Also, granite countertops are not seamless, which can be a disadvantage to those who prefer a consistent look. “Stone has a more custom and unique look. It’s like an original painting,” said
Hueston. “I would want something original to make my kitchen stand out amongst everything else, and stone is the only thing that is going to do that.”
However, if a uniform appearance is desired, granite should not be entirely ruled out. According to MIA, “The minerals in granite will typically appear as small flecks distributed uniformly in the stone. Many commercial deposits display remarkable homogeneity; the rock may not vary in color or texture for many feet, either vertically or horizontally.”
Many people rule out natural stone as a design material because of a common misconception that is more expensive than solid surfacing. However, this is not always the case. “The general conception is that granite is more expensive and it is not,” said Monson. “Granite and solid surfacing are very comparable in price.” In addition to the original cost, granite can save money over time. “A solid surface does not last forever, but granite does, so cost is better in the long run,” said Rupy Shah. “It used to me a myth that granite was only for the rich, but it’s really not. “It’s for the average person because it lasts forever.”
Depending on the type of granite or solid surface material chosen, the price will fluctuate. “There are varying degrees and ranges of both, and some of the higher-end solid surface materials can be more expensive than granite,” said
Hueston. “Sometimes they are equal in price, and other times a solid surface is cheaper than granite.” For example, if a solid color is chosen for a solid surface material, its cost will be less expensive than one with a pattern. “There are different family series’ and some have particulates or specs in them that appear like granite,” said Barton. “These are more expensive.” Granite will also vary depending on the type chosen. According to the MIA,
“Many factors determine the price of a particular stone. Availability, ease of extraction, market demand, quality and transportation are a few of the variables that will affect the price.”
Another factor that contributes tot he cost of both materials is the amount of fabrication involved. “The price of granite is usually controlled or dictated by the amount of fabrication necessary,” said
Hueston. “If a bull-nosed edge or undermount sink is needed, it requires more fabrication and is more expensive.” The same is true with solid surfacing. According to Barton, “If you’re doing a coved backsplash rather than a standard backsplash, or if we have to inlay a different color into the edge, there is a lot more labor involved and that would raise the price.”
Furthermore, the installation of a solid surface material is easier than granite, but this does not have a large effect on the price. “A solid surface is a little easier to install because it is lightweight and you would not need so many individuals to install it as you would with granite,” said
Hueston. “But for the most part they are about equal as far as installation costs.”
After clearing away any false information and considering the pros, cons, and various options of both granite and solid surface countertops, the final choice is ultimately up to the owner. Although both offer distinct advantages and disadvantages, what may be a disadvantage to one person may not be to another, and vice versa. “I would think that if anyone investigated the advantages of granite versus a solid surface, they would come to the conclusion that granite is the choice,” said
Hueston. But, regardless of whether you choose a solid surface or granite, make sure you follow the manufacturers directions for care and maintenance,” said